Oborový portál pro BOZP
Bezpečnost a ochrana zdraví při práci (BOZP) a rizikové faktory pracovníků nad 50 let - uplatnění starších osob v pracovním procesu s návrhy na opatření na úrovni odvětví a podniku - 3. část
Lenka Svobodová1, Bohumila Čabanová2, Pavel Kučina3, Eva Hanáková4, Paulína Tabery5, Bohuslav Švec6
1Occupational Safety Research Institute, Prague, svobodovaL@vubp-praha.cz
2 Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University, Prague
3Occupational Safety Research Institute, Prague
4Occupational Safety Research Institute, Prague
5 Public Opinion Research Centre Institute of Sociology Academy of Sciences, Prague
6Occupational Safety Research Institute, Prague
Next article about results from project Occupational health and safety and risk factors of workers over 50 years old - the participation of older citizens in the labour market and proposals for measures in the industrial and commercial sectors is this time looks on target group – workers over 50 - from the general view of statistics and data from information systems (the topis is „work“)..
Keywords: elderly worker, employers over 50 years, quality of working life, working conditions, safety and health at work, risk prevention, labour market, statistics, data, projects, results, Occupational Safety Research Institute
Další článek ze série přinášející informace o výsledcích projektu “BOZP a rizikové faktory pracovníků nad 50 let – uplatnění starších osob v pracovním procesu s návrhy na opatření na úrovni odvětví a podniku” se tentokrát na cílovou skupinu projektu - pracovníci nad 50 let – dívá z pohledu statistik a dat z různých informačních systémů (stěžejní téma je práce).
Klíčová slova: starší pracovníci, zaměstnanci ve věku 50+, kvalita pracovního života, pracovní podmínky, trh práce, bezpečnost a ochrana zdraví, prevence rizik, pracovní trh, statistiky, data, projekty, výsledky, VÚBP
The number of inhabitants in Europe has been continuously falling and the prognosis indicates that this decrease will continue into the future. This decrease will show itself most within the productive group of inhabitants (15 – 64 years of age). The trend will not continue linearly but will increase. By 2050 the total number of inhabitants in Europe will have decreased yearly by 1.8 million on average. However, between 2030 and 2050 it should be 3 million inhabitants per year. It should result in a decrease of about 2.64 million per year in the productive group of inhabitants, but between 2030 and 2050 it should be up to 3.95 inhabitants per year.
Although the prognosis of the age structure of the Czech population shows a moderate increase of inhabitants (caused mainly by immigration), it will be less favourable than in Europe as a whole. The number of inhabitants should increase nearly linearly from 9.934 million in 2000 to 10.831 million in 2050, which is an average of 18 thousand per year, however, the number of inhabitants in the productive age group should decrease linearly from 7.196 million in 2000 to 6.072 million in 2050, which is an average of 22.5 thousand per year.
In 2050 there will be 2.11 inhabitants of productive age to one inhabitant over 65, whereas in 2000 it was 4.88 inhabitants of productive age to one senior citizen.
In 2050 there will be 6.24 inhabitants of productive age to one inhabitant over 65, whereas in 2000 it was 1.84 inhabitants of productive age to one senior citizen.
In 2008 there is currently a ratio of 2.410 payers of social insurance and pensioners in the Czech Republic to one old-age pensioner, and 1.808 payers to one pensioner.
The relatively positive unemployment rate in the 3rd quarter of 2008 was not yet encumbered by the consequences of the economic crisis that was just beginning at that time. The data from the end of 2008 and first two months of 2009 do not seem to be as positive; the trend of unemployment and job vacancies has been turning.
A great number of people in the category of over-50 and changes in the structure of this group are related to the annually extending age limit for retirement. On the other hand, the age limit has been lowered by great numbers of people going for premature retirement resulting from the loss of their job. The decreasing number of job applicants close to this age limit also corresponds with the age limit needed for retirement.
In regards to the level of education achieved by the unemployed, it is those of all age groups with an incomplete secondary education – without their leaving exam (comparable to the British GSCE) - who are most affected. Unemployment in the age group 60+ is essentially not influenced by their level of achieved education. It stays approximately the same in respect to any achieved level of education. However, it is still the population with just a secondary education (with or without a leaving exam) that is slightly prevailing.
According to the Employment Act the Employment Office is obliged to provide greater care for over-50 job applicants. The retraining of job seekers who are given such greater care (including job applicants over 50) is carried out in the form of courses in educational programmes designed for such job seekers.
This greater care for the aforementioned applicants (guaranteed by law) has a positive impact on the number of job applicants who have been placed in such retraining programmes.
The continuously increasing level of income that comes with age in non-commercial spheres is determined by legal regulations that modify the pay rates of employees in public services and state administration. These regulations take the length of employment into consideration and thus the age of the employee as well.
In the commercial sphere, on the other hand, the salary is determined by a payment assessment in which the salary is based solely on the feasibilities and decisions made by the employer or by contract with the employee; as the case may be. Employees in their most productive years are preferred, meaning the 30 - 39 age group.
Shorter working hours are most often used by employees within the 30 - 44 age group. The biggest proportion is made up of employees – namely female employees – who look after children or care for other people. In the 45 - 59 age group a similarly large proportion of shorter working hours are caused by increasing health problems that prohibit them from working full time.
A large proportion of part-time work can be seen in the 60-and-over age group as well. The main reason for this is the possibility for extra income (e.g. when retired and employed at the same time). The percentage of people employed part time is significantly greatest in the over-60 group when considering the proportion of people employed in individual age groups.
Older employees are minimally used during atypical working hours. Just as in other age groups, they mostly work on Saturdays and evenings. Older employees are least used during nights and for shift work.
SVOBODOVÁ, Lenka...[et al.]. Occupational health and safety (OHS) and risk factors of workers over 50 years old - the participation of older citizens in the labour market and proposals for measures in the industrial and commercial sectors : part 4. Časopis výzkumu a aplikací v profesionální bezpečnosti [online], 2009, roč. 2, č. 4. Dostupný z WWW: <http://www.bozpinfo.cz/josra/josra-04-2009/svobodova_padesatplusIII.html>. ISSN 1803-3687.